r/ethereum 4d ago

Frequently Asked Questions + Weekly Discussion Thread


Welcome to the Weekly Discussion. Please read the disclaimer, guidelines, and rules before participating.


  • All sub rules apply in this thread.
  • Discussion topics must be related to Ethereum.
  • Behave with civility and politeness. Do not use offensive, racist or homophobic language.
  • Comments will be sorted by newest first.

Useful Links:


/r/ethereum is a community for discussing the technology, news, applications and community of Ethereum. Discussion of the Ether price or trading is not allowed. Please keep those discussions to /r/ethfinance and /r/ethstaker.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where's the best place to buy ETH?

There are many centralized exchanges that support Ethereum. If you live in the US, the most popular exchanges are Coinbase, Gemeni and Kraken. Coinbase users can use Coinbase Pro for lower fees.

How can I stake my ETH?

The best way to stake your ETH: by running your own validator.

  • Running your own validator requires a modern computer and 32 ETH. Visit /r/ethstaker for more details

Why are Ethereum transaction fees so high?

Like most blockchains, Ethereum fees are determined by supply-and-demand. The large demand to use Ethereum has pushed transaction fees quite high (however, fees were just a few cents only 2 years ago). Fees are especially high during market volatility, and during NFT drops.

What is being done to lower Ethereum transaction fees?

Ethereum fees are reduced by using layer-2 rollups. Rollups are scaling solutions that allow for significantly cheaper transactions, while still maintaining Ethereum's security.

Additionally, data shards will make rollups even cheaper.

While rollups are cutting-edge technology being actively developed, a number are already live on Ethereum mainnet. Visit l2beat.com to learn more about rollups.

What's the best wallet for Ethereum?

The most popular tool for using decentralized applications is Metamask. However, for security reasons, we recommend using a hardware wallet such as a Trezor or Ledger.

Are there questions you'd like to see added? Leave a comment below.

r/ethereum 28m ago

Scammers having a bad day


I got one too many “rectification” scammers trying to chat with me after I posted something on a crypto sub. I’m a semi-retired software engineer with lots of skills and contacts at various hosting providers. I decided to use those skills to DDOS the scam sites and contacts to get them taken offline entirely. So far I’ve taken down over 30. I use one of my many Reddit accounts to post questions on crypto subs baiting these idiots to try to scam me. I used to get a whole bunch at once less than 5 minutes after I posted. Now I maybe get one or two so I’ve clearly had an effect. When I do get someone I get a new scam site and run it though my stressor and its usually gone within a day. Then I LOL. Scammers are scum and I delight in their demise.

I’m not giving up. I found my calling. I have nothing better to do. So you silly scammers are going to have a very hard time from now on. You will always have to wonder if that person you’re trying to scam with your rectification sites is me. LOL.

…and they are so dumb I’ll probably get some chat requests off of this posting. ROTFL

r/ethereum 3h ago

Vitalik: How will Ethereum's multi-client philosophy interact with ZK-EVMs?

Thumbnail vitalik.eth.limo

r/ethereum 19h ago

Man Accidentally Destroys "CryptoPunks #685" - NFT Worth of $129k: Loses 'A Third of his Net Worth.'


r/ethereum 6h ago

Any Solidity Dev here? I need help.


If a Proxy is created via a factory (ERC1967Factory) to be more exact, what should I focus on/explore to see if there is a way to upgrade the implementation in an unintended manner via the factory?

If you know of any resources, that would also be helpful.

r/ethereum 5h ago

Validator Node to best empower the network?


When running a validator node, there are a few major decisions to make: cloud based or hardware, client type, location etc...

I am curious to hear from the community: if you were going to launch a node with not much worry about difficulty and so on, and you specifically just wanted it to empower the network as much as possible; what would you choose for this and why?

You can start with what I listed above, but include any aspects I missed.

For example, I assume diversifying the current client distribution would be one aspect that would be important.

The current state of validator node distribution should be taken into account with regard to all the aspects, too (this is not meant to be a theoretical experiment based on a fixed number of nodes, but rather if you were adding some substantial amount to what currently exists today).

r/ethereum 9h ago

Gas Fees: Ethereum's Ultimate Defense - A Simple Explanation




Validators execute transactions in a block, and compute the resulting changes to the network. Transactions in blocks have fees associated with them, called gas fees, that serve as a defense mechanism protecting blockchains from attack.

The Halting Problem

Let’s start with an old computer science problem solved by Alan Turing himself; The Halting Problem. The Halting Problem says that the only way to find out if a program will halt execution at some point (as it should), is to execute that program. There is no way to determine if there will be a result without working to compute that result. This simple discovery is the essence for why gas exists on Ethereum.

Why Blockchains Have Gas Fees

Blockchains must always be operational, which requires miners/validators to continuously execute transactions. These transactions are broadcast in programming languages like Solidity or the lower-level bytecode, which means that transactions are themselves programs. Validators execute transactions and compute the changes our transactions have on the network, but remember the Halting Problem here. A malicious person could send a transaction that never halts, keeps looping, and drains validator resources. Gas serves as the protection against this behavior.


When we send transactions, we must associate them with gas fees we’re willing to pay. This gas cost covers the resources used to compute our transaction - but is also a limit on the resources the transaction can take. If a transaction runs out of gas, execution stops and the transaction is discarded. This is far better than having transactions stuck in loops, draining resources.

Gas Limit

Gas is measured in units. Each operation that can be performed requires units of gas based on how much effort it requires. Complex transactions like deploying a smart contract or minting an NFT require more effort to compute than a simple transfer of currency. The difference of effort is measured in the different units of gas required.

The units of gas used by a transaction is expressed in its gas limit. The higher the gas limit, the more effort validators can spend executing it. If a transaction requires more effort to execute than the gas allocated to it, the transaction will fail. When transactions fail due to this “out of gas” error, validators stop executing them and keep the gas for the effort they already spent.


The gas limit prevents blockchains from experiencing the Halting Problem. No transaction can execute indefinitely unless it also has an indefinite amount of gas associated. This in unrealistically expensive, especially since as we will see next, gas costs money.

Gas Price

he cost of each unit of gas is measured in sub-units of Ethereum’s currency, called gwei. The cost of a transaction is the gas limit multiplied by the gas price. Transactions can also include an additional tip to the validator, called a priority fee. You can find the gas price at a given time using Etherscan.

1 ETH splits into one billion gwei, but even with such small amounts costs can add up. The price in gwei that a transaction will require is based on current network traffic. These prices are very dynamic. When many people are performing transactions at the same time, the price of gas in gwei tends to go up. This is because blocks are limited in size to 30 million units of gas maximum, and people will outbid each other to ensure their transactions are executed.


Block space is limited, so the price of that space changes with how popular it is at a given point in time. This is the other side of the defense; performing an attack that spams a network to drain it of its resources (known as a DDoS attack) would increase gas prices for each subsequent transaction in that attack, making it increasingly expensive.

A notably different example is Solana which has a fixed gas fee for all transactions. This has proven to not be an adequate defense, causing the chain to stop operating on many occasions.

Thank You!

This write-up is a summary of the full write-up from my free newsletter. Sign up to support me and receive simple write-ups on blockchain concepts, delivered every other week.

Stay kind. Stay curious.


r/ethereum 14h ago

Carbon Credit NFTs: An Increasingly Popular Real-world Use Case that You Should Know About!


r/ethereum 14h ago

Formula to find divergence loss in Uniswap


Can I trust this article? Is this the right way to derive the formula? I have an interview at a web-3 startup. Divergence loss formula

r/ethereum 10h ago

Is a nft mintint smart contract that doesnt have a fixed price per nft possible?


I want to have a price per nft that is minted, so for example i want that nft to cost 10 dollars. So less than 10 polygon (matic). I want to be able to use that smart contract basically forever, but what then if the price of 1 matic becomes 10 dollars the price for the nft's need to be 1 matic.

I understand that you cant alter a smart contract after its been deployed. But how can i do what i want. Like i need to be able to change the ft minting price if polygon ever becomes too expensive.

Also i understand i could make it so that people need to supply for example a stable coin pegged to like a dollar. So that way the price says the same. But I'd rather have it for just polygon matic as the price.

But is this possible without stable coins? Is there a way i can change the price per NFT? Or is there like a script that is able to do this in a smart contract or other ways?

r/ethereum 1d ago

Revolutionizing Web3 Storage: A Deep Dive into IPFS and Verida DbStore


r/ethereum 23h ago

question about smart contract audit


hey guys. I have a question about smart contract auditing.

Let's say I'm planning to have two smart contract audit done to my smart contract. Do you usually do it one after another? or at the same time? Thank you.

r/ethereum 1d ago

The Achilles' Heel of Web3 | CoinFabrik Blog


r/ethereum 1d ago

Seed Phrase Saving Technique


I'm sure I'm not the first one to think of this but could anyone please counter/debunk my idea: I most likely am. I would like to save my seedphrase on the cloud using multiple levels of encryption.

>Memory/Ancecdote: This most important layer being memory/anecdotes where for example if a word is 'Charge' I write something like

        First three letters of my father's oldest uncle ( who is called Charlie)/Last three letters are the country where I went on exchange: How it appears on tv in english on a football match but unscramble it.

So to decrypt it would be: Cha from Charlie and G-e-r in any order. I would get charge.

>Non English language: Just reducing chances

I will skip this layer here to avoid misunderstanding

>Intentionally misspelling: So that machines (yet) dont pick up on language and make sensoe of it

Phurst thuree leters af my fathhers eldest onkel..... 

>Simple math based encryption: TO avoid the text being understood by any human reader of any language as something sound

Phurst thuree....

P->Q  h->i u->v etc.
sentence appearing as 

""Phurst thuree" appearing as "Qivtu uisff...."

I believe that unless I lose my memory, this is the safest way to store information (in my head). I am much less likely to forget my uncles name, or university country etc. than random words.

The reason I am against physical storage is because no matter how safe, it has a greater chance of getting lost or stolen.

Please share your knowledge on risks of this method

r/ethereum 1d ago

How to differentiate a Soul-Bound Token vs one that isn’t?


I have a bunch of NFTs, let’s be honest, we probably all do from spam airdropped ones if you’ve used the ecosystem. The issue I have is that I can’t seem to be able to distinguish which are which without having to attempt to send one and then only coming to the conclusion it is once I see it’s still in my wallet.

Is there an easy way to distinguish them? Possibly via Etherscan?

r/ethereum 1d ago

IMO: The best feature of CertiK - Security Scores! Check how it works 👇


r/ethereum 1d ago

What's an ideal ETH-based project you'd love to see vs your favorite existing ETH-based project?


I gave a lot of thought to the idea of developing a crypto project centered around it being a video game with the possibility of earning some buck just by playing the game. Ideally, this game would be on par, quality and content wise, with the titles like WoW, Diablo, or Path of Exile, but I know it's far far away from what can be expected at this moment. It doesn't necessarily have to be a new game, but it would be cool if some of the existing ones implemented crypto/NFTs at one point to allow players to monetize the effort they put into the game by selling NFT items, in-game currency as cryptocurrency, etc. Ethereum would be a solid base for a project like this because of its stability and versatility, however, the game would probably have its own coin.

My favorite existing ETH-based project would probably be NFT City Miner. I played the previous game made by these devs (Crypto Idle Miner), and it had me occupied for months, so I assume the new one would be even more interesting, especially considering it would contain NFT buildings in form of owning virtual property. I also made a bit of money playing CIM, and it was actually good if taken into consideration that the game is free.

The second one would probably be Crazy Defense Heroes, but it's looking and feeling a bit clunky.

What's your favorite "idealistic" ETH-based project you'd love to see vs your favorite existing ETH-based project?

r/ethereum 1d ago

Does anyone have any insight into how you create a ERC1155 NFT with a royalty split?


Looking through the Alchemy docs I found this: https://docs.alchemy.com/docs/how-to-create-erc-1155-tokens but it doesn't mention anything about a royalty split. needs to be on the ETH mainnet.

Could anyone help? Happy to share some MATIC for your trouble.

r/ethereum 1d ago

Choosing The Right Ethereum Layer 2 Solution For Your Use Case (Arbitrum, Base, ZKSync Era, Linea ...)

Thumbnail ethercto.com

r/ethereum 1d ago



Hi Folks

I was wondering if anyone had a link for the video or / and notes from the SHARED SECURITY SUMMIT 2023 that happened at ETH Denver few weeks ago.


Topics look super interesting.

r/ethereum 1d ago

Aragon App and OSx live on Polygon!

Thumbnail self.aragonproject

r/ethereum 1d ago

invalid opcode from eth_estimateGas


Can anyone help me debug this response message?

{ "method": "eth_estimateGas", "params": [{ "value": "0x0", "from": "0x3c01dbe11127304a98f8422c374b1dc0c3ab8ca5", "to": "0xdac17f958d2ee523a2206206994597c13d831ec7", "data": "0xa9059cbb0000000000000000000000001de67ffece5d348f5ab7f2f077b47000c5bac5010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002669980" }], "id": 58, "jsonrpc": "2.0" }

{ "jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": 58, "error": { "code": -32000, "message": "invalid opcode: INVALID" } }

r/ethereum 2d ago

Are there any Non KYC Exchanges for ETH transactions?


Hey guys! I’m trying to buy some ETH on Binance but I’m having trouble with the verification process especially with the Govt ID part. Most of my Govt IDs are already expired and I’ll have to find another way or a passport but damn that can take a month or two. I also thought to myself maybe handing over KYC is not such a good idea especially with passports or very important government ID’s.

I also think there must be a catch on Non KYC exchanges but I feel like I’d rather go with the Non KYC ones. I’m not gonna do large transactions anyway and with that, I’d just use the Non KYC Exchanges for now. So with some research, I found LocalCryptos, Houdini Swap, LocalMonero, and KuCoin (with a certain limit), but I'm not really keen on P2P marketplaces.

Someone suggested P2P marketplaces but if it’s security I’m looking for, I’d rather go with an exchange. Right now I’m leaning towards buying it on a non KYC DEX exchange rather than a CEX exchange so Bisq, HodlHodl is on the bottom of my list (I’ll still consider them just in case or for future uses who knows). Thanks for helping out.

r/ethereum 2d ago

dba: Ethereum Model - Google Drive

Thumbnail docs.google.com

Full credit to Jon Charbonneau, who does excellent work succinctly communicating Ethereum’s roadmap and target state.

You might remember his excellent “Hitchhikers Guide To Ethereum” he wrote for Delphi describing optimal paths to decentralisation of block construction.

This is a useful Google Sheets database that you can fork and play around with to test and understand assumptions about Ethereum’s future, node requirements (including DA throughput) and potential value accrual mechanisms.


r/ethereum 2d ago

Trouble Verifying & Publishing Contracts on zkEVM Mainnet Block Explorer? 🤔🔍


Hey everyone! Just wanted to check if anyone else is experiencing difficulties verifying and publishing smart contracts on the recently launched zkEVM mainnet block explorer. 😕

As we know, the zkEVM mainnet is a major step forward for Ethereum scaling, promising faster and cheaper transactions. However, with any new technology, there can be some initial hiccups and challenges. 🌐🚀

Are you facing any issues when interacting with the zkEVM mainnet block explorer? If so, please share your experiences and any potential solutions you've found.

r/ethereum 3d ago

The RESTRICT Act Creates Blanket Authority, With Few Checks, to Ban Just About Anything Linked to a ‘Foreign Adversary’ - also Crypto


r/ethereum 2d ago

Best ETH hot wallet anyone?


I'm a bit new to the ETH train but wouldn't mind moving some crypto off the CEX and onto an actual wallet.

Anyone got some good, preferably non shady wallet sites?

I know metamask is one but that seems a bit slippy and nebulous.